Grške volitve od leta 1974 do 2015

Vas je kdaj zanimalo, katere stranke so zmagovale na parlamentarnih volitvah v Grčiji? Ali morda, koliko in katere so se sploh uvrstile v parlament? Iz tabele, ki jo je ustvarila Dr. Elli Siapkidou, je vse to izjemno lepo razvidno.

Greek election results 1974-2012 
Election year Winning party (%) Opposition (%) Parties in parliament (%)
1974 New Democracy (54.4%) Centre Union- New Forces (20.4%) PASOK (13.6%)
United Left (9.5%)
1977 New Democracy  (41.8%) PASOK (25.3%) Union of the Democratic Centre (11.9%)
Communist Party of Greece (9.4%)
National alignment (6.8%)
Progress and Left Forces Alliance (2.7%)
Party of New Liberals (1.1%)
1981 PASOK (48.1%) New Democracy (35.9%) Communist Party of Greece (10.9%)
1985 PASOK (45.8%) New Democracy (40.8%) Communist Party of Greece (9.9%)
Communist Party of Greece (Interior) (1.8%)
1989 New Democracy (46.2%) PASOK (40.7%) Left and Progress Coalition (11%)
Alternative Ecologists (0.6%)
Trust (0.4%)
Fate (0.2%)
1990 New Democracy (46.9%) PASOK (38.6%) Left and Progress Coalition (10.3%)
Alternative Ecologists (0.8%)
Democratic Renewal (0.7%)
Trust (0.4%)
Fate (0.2%)
1993 PASOK (46.9%) New Democracy (39.3%) Political Spring (4.9%) Communist Party of Greece (4.5%)
1996 PASOK (41.5%) New Democracy (38.1%) Communist Party of Greece (5.6%)
SYN (5.1%)
DIKKI (4.4%)
2000 PASOK (43.8%) New Democracy (42.7%) Communist Party of Greece (5.5%)
SYN (3.2%)
2004 New Democracy (45.3%) PASOK (40.6%) Communist Party of Greece (5.9%)
SYN (3.2%)
2007 New Democracy (41.8%) PASOK (38.1%) Communist Party of Greece (8.1%)
Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA) (5%)
LAOS (3.8%)
2009 PASOK (43.9%) New Democracy (33.5%) Communist Party of Greece (7.5%)
LAOS (5.6%)
Coalition of the Radical
Left (SYRIZA) (4.6%)
2012 (May) New Democracy (18.9%) SYRIZA (16.8%) PASOK (13.18%)
Independent Greeks (ANEL) (10.6%)
Communist Party of Greece (8.5%)
Golden Dawn (7%)
Democratic Left (DIMAR) (6.1%)
2012 (June) – 2nd round New Democracy (30%) SYRIZA (27%) PASOK (12.3%)
Independent Greeks (ANEL) (7.5%)
Golden Dawn (6.9%)
Democratic Left (DIMAR) (6.25%)
Communist Party of Greece (4.5%)

Vir: AnalyzeGreece!

V eni od prejšnjih objav smo govorili o razpadu “dvostrankarskega sistema”, ki sta ga tvorili stranki Pasok (“socialisti”) in Nova demokracija (konservativci). Iz zgornje tabele lahko vidimo, da sta omenjeni stranki zmagovali vse od konca vojaške hunte leta 1974, pa vse do prelomnih volitev leta 2012 (maja in junija). Takrat se je namreč zgodilo, da ti dve stranki nista zasedli prvega in drugega mesta (podobno je bilo edino še leta 1974, takoj po koncu vojaške hunte)  – na drugo mesto se je tako maja kot junija zavihtela levičarska Siriza. In kar je še bolj pomembno, od vojaške hunte pa do danes sta prav vse grške vlade obvladovali bodisi Nova demokacija bodisi Pasok ali, kot je značilno predvsem za zadnjih nekaj let, obe skupaj (ob pomoči nekaterih manjših strank) – ves ta čas jima je uspelo vladati tudi zaradi prilagajanja volilnega sistema. Zaradi vsega zgoraj naštetega je jasno, da so letošnje volitve prelomne, saj je velika verjetnost, da bo zmagovalka volitev Siriza. Če ji bo uspelo oblikovati tudi vlado, pa je drugo vprašanje. Najlažje bi seveda bilo, če bi osvojila absolutno večino, kar ni nemogoče.

Še nekaj izstopa iz zgornje tabele. Če so se leta 2000 v parlament uvrstile štiri stranke, je bilo teh leta 2012 kar sedem (število strank v malček globlji preteklosti naj vas ne preseneti, saj grški volilni sistem od začetka ni poznal 3% praga za vstop v parlament). Po volitvah konec tega meseca bo v grškem parlamentu, če ne bo velikih presenečenj, med pet in osem strank. Stranke Siriza, Nova demokracija, To Potami ali Reka, KKE (komunisti) in Zlata zora bodo zagotovo prestopile parlamentarni prag. Če katere ne bo v parlamentu, bo to zagotovo precej veliko presenečenje. To Potami se v anketah redno pojavlja kot stranka, ki je najresnejša kandidatka za tretje mesto. KKE ima, kljub ne preveč visokim rejtingom, zvesto volilno telo, ki stranki “garantira” vstop v parlament. Morda tudi kaj več. Zlata zora ima v rokavu še enega aduta – javnomnenjske ankete najbrž podcenjujejo podporo stranki, ki že tako ni mala. Da se razume, po tretjem mestu lahko posežejo vse tri zgoraj naštete. Nato pa se stvari dodobra zapletejo. Gotovo je, da v parlamentu več ne bo reformistične levosredinske stranke Demokratična levica ali Dimar. Veliko vprašanje je, kaj se bo zgodilo s socialdemokratskim taborom. Pasok v nekaterih anketah z lahkoto dosega odstotke (včasih zelo solidne), ki ga peljejo v parlament, spet v drugih je na pragu parlamenta. Druga stranka iz tega tabora je Gibanje demokratičnih socialistov (krajše To Kinima, kar lahko prevedemo kot Gibanje. Zasledimo lahko tudi kratice Kidiso, KiDiSo ali KIDISO oz. KDS, kar so kratice za ime Gibanje demokratičnih socialistov), “novinka”, ki jo vodi nekdanji zvezdnik Pasoka George Papandreou. Zakaj je Papandreou lansiral novi projekt, je široka debata, ki je tukaj ne bomo načeli, je pa iz dozdajšnjih merjenj volilnega razpoloženja jasno, da ima stranka kar nekaj možnosti, da je sploh ne bomo videli v parlamentu. Podobno velja za desničarsko stranko Neodvisni Grki (ANEL), ki so jo pred leti ustanovili odpadniki iz Nove demokracije.

Za konec je prav, da objavimo še tekst Elli Siapkidou, ki je spremljal zgoraj objavljeno tabelo:
In January 2015, Greece is holding one of the most crucial votes in its modern history. The national election of 25 January will decide which party will lead the next government. It will also determine whether Greece will attempt a harder stance towards the ECB-IMF-European Commission troika, and ways to handle its unsustainable debt that do not involve the pauperisation of growing parts of the Greek society.
More importantly, this election will show whether the Greek people are ready to move towards a new era, away from the two parties that have dominated the country’s political life for the past 40 years, and are mainly responsible for the country’s crisis today.
Since the beginning of the “metapolitefsi”, or the end of the dictatorship, which lasted from 1967-1974, Greece has seen 14 national elections (see table).
These elections have been dominated by two mainstream parties: the centre-right New Democracy and the centre-left/socialist PASOK (Panhellenic Socialist Μovement).
While New Democracy won the 1974 and 1977 elections under the leadership of Konstantinos Karamanlis, Andreas Papandreou’s Panhellenic Socialist Movement won by a landslide in 1981 and remained in power in 1985. Then came a short period of New Democracy rule, from 1989-1993, before PASOK’s return to power for another 11 years, after winning 3 consecutive elections in 1993, 1996 and 2000. New Democracy came to power in 2004 and again in 2007, ruling for 7 years and was voted out of office in 2009.
From 2009 onwards, the country has seen a 2-year government by George Papandreou (son of Andreas Papandreou, who founded PASOK in the 1970s) and a coalition government formed in 2011 by PASOK, New Democracy and LAOS headed by technocrat and former ECB Banker Lucas Papademos. It was under George Papandreou’s government in 2010, that the country entered a loan agreement with the ECB-IMF-European Commission troika and paved the way for the austerity policies that have depressed the economy.
The latest elections took place in two rounds in the spring 2012. The May 2012 election did not allow any party to rule by itself. As no single party secured the majority of parliament seats, the three largest parties (New Democracy, SYRIZA and PASOK) were in turn given the mandate to form a coalition government but with no success. The repeat elections took place in June 2012 leading to a coalition government between New Democracy, PASOK and DIMAR. Furthermore, the 2012 election saw the rise and entry to parliament of the neo-nazi, fascist Golden Dawn party, whose members were engaged in criminal activities against immigrants and left-wing and anarchist activists.
In order to understand the context of the 2015 election, a few more notes are necessary. SYRIZA (Coalition of the Radical Left), the main party currently in opposition and most probable winner of the next elections, is formed of small left-wing parties, around the former SYN (Coalition).
LAOS stands for Popular Orthodox Party. It is a nationalistic, populist party of the extreme-right which was created in 2000 and mainly attracted voters on the right of New Democracy. It entered parliament for the first time in 2007 and gained 5.8% in the 2009 election. It participated in the PASOK-New Democracy coalition government in 2011, under the leadership of Loukas Papademos and lost most of its appeal to the voters of the extreme-right. Its collapse left a vacuum, which facilitated the rise of the fascist Golden Dawn. LAOS’s leader Giorgos Karatzaferis was recently accused of moving illicit funds of up to €1,65million to his off shore companies.
Political Spring which won 4.9% in the 1993 election, was a short-lived party created by current Prime Minister Antonis Samaras.
Threshold of 3% and bonus: Since 1990, there exists a threshold of 3% of the total vote for a party to enter parliament leading to fewer parties in parliament. Since the 2012 elections, the party with the highest vote gets an extra 50 seats in the 300- seat parliament.
The January election is taking place in a very tense and highly polarised political environment, in a society, which has suffered severely from austerity policies and the decisions of corrupt domestic political elites. In the past 5 years, the Greek economy has been violently transformed: Unemployment has risen to 28% with youth unemployment at 59%, the economy has been shrinking and the country’s young and bright and migrating abroad. In the past 2 years, Golden Dawn murdered left-wing activist Pavlos Fyssas, which led to the arrest of a large number of its MPs, including their leader.
Is the Greek society ready to move into a new era, away from the corrupt political forces that are largely responsible for the pauperization of large parts of the society and rise of fascist forces? It remains to be seen.

Zadnji odstavek Elli Siapkidou zveni zlovešče, a je še kako na mestu. Neuspeh levice, takšen ali drugačen, nas lahko pelje v katastrofo, ki se je premnogi ne zavedajo.

  • Več o vladnem programu Sirize lahko preberete TUKAJ.
  • Več o vzponu Sirize lahko preberete TUKAJ.
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3 komentarji on “Grške volitve od leta 1974 do 2015”

  1. […] demokrati = zeleni) in Nova demokracija (konservativci = modri). Če smo v preteklih objavah govorili o zgodovini volitev, o tem, kdo so volivci posameznih strank in tem, katere stranke bodo kandidirale na prihajajočih […]

  2. […] Zgodovina grških volitev TUKAJ. […]


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